An ion is a molecule or an atom that is charged and the electrons do not equal the number of protons in the atom or molecule. It was introduced by one of the most influential scientists Michael Faraday during 1834. Although Faraday did not know where these species came from, he described the portions of molecules in a current that move through cathode from anode or the other way around. He also introduced anion and cation.
A negatively charged ion is called an anion due to its attraction to the anode, and the positively charged ion is called cation, because it is attracted to the cathode.
1. In gaseous state the ions are highly reactive and the earth does not have high quantity or amount while natural elements such as light, flames and so on. Ions will always have an attraction to opposite electrical charges and be repelled by like charges and travel in paths that a magnetic field deflects.
2. In nature, ion are universal and responsible for natural occurrence like the existing ionosphere of the earth and the luminescence of the sun.
3. Ions play an important part in chemistry such as organic and inorganic chemistry. With biochemistry it is found that water and ions interacting with each other are fundamental and cause the breaking down adenosine triphosphate.
4. At home, ions can be useful in the cleaning of air and its purification by the reaction of charged particles in the air, disrupting the microbes and also can be used in smoke detectors.
5. In astronomy, ions are non aqueous gas containing a proportion of charged particles that is called plasma that consists of the universal matter found and visible in the universe which is often called the fourth state of matter, mainly because different solids, gas and liquids substantially contain a mixture of protons and electrons.
6. A chemical bonding arising from the attraction of opposite charged ions and like charged ions are repelled and ion of the opposite charge are attracted to each other, meaning that ions don’t usually exist on their own and will always bind with ions charged opposite from itself and form a crystal lattice and the result would be the ionic compound resulting in the distance of ionic neighbors and deriving from the spatial extension and ionic radius.
7. In ionic bonding, the most common types are the bonding from metallic and nonmetals
- Metal: – Metals have a small number of electrons in a closed shell electronic configuration in which they have the tendency to lose electrons on order to attain its stable configuration and thus is known as electropositivity.
- Non Metal: – Non metals have a configuration of just a few electronic configuration to remain stable and are called electronegativity, as the combination of non metals to metals where the metal is highly electro-positive combine with highly electronegative nonmetal, thus, producing metal cation and non metal anion attracting each other forming salt.
8. Ions have many uses and some are used in ionic air purifiers where the particles in the air are attracted to an electrode having the same effect or are similar to static electricity where it is de-ionized because of earthed conductors like walls and ceiling.
9. Ozone generator and ionizers are not the same and functioning as ionizers electrostatically charged plates producing “+” and “-” charged gaseous ions. The ozone generator optimizes the attraction of extra oxygen ion that particulates matter to stick having the same effect to a static charge of electricity.
10. Ion beams are very useful. As a charged particle, beam that consists of ions can be used in electronics manufacturing by using its beam for etching and for analysis and by this application is conceptually similar to sand blasting but this application uses the individual atoms in the ion beam to ablate a target.
11. In biology, a focused ionic beam is used in radiobiology to study mechanisms of inter and intra communication of cells to see the damage to the DNA and help in the process of its repair.
12. Plasma produced by ionic beams using its thrusters on board a spacecraft transmits a force to a nearby object which is irradiated by the beam and propels the spacecraft and this technique is called the ion beam shepherd, where it is also used in the deflection of space debris and asteroids.
13. In medicine, ion beams are used in particle therapy where energized protons or positive ions are used in the treatment for cancer cells.
14. Ion beam can also be benefited in human weaponry where its development is still in the process of completion and is theoretically possible. However, while in that completion stage, there are no current weapon of this type whereas the current ion beams won’t be able to hurt humans badly but in the movie industry and science fiction this ion beam weapon or ion cannons called in the movies is the weapon of choice where this weapon can cut almost anything to cause total damage to a person and to its surroundings.
15. Atomic physics studies atoms as a system in which the electrons and atomic nucleus is isolated and is concerned in the arrangement of the electrons around the nucleus where the arrangement process changes are being observed and concludes the purpose of the discussion assuming that atoms include ions.